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Volume 128, Number 2 June 20, 2014 ISSN 0028-1344


Sven N. Nielsen

Bernard Landau

New ScMtellmtra (Gastropoda: Patellidae) species from the lower

Miocene Navidad Formation of central Chile and the lower-middle Miocene Cantaure Formation of Venezuela


Guido Pastorino

Ignacio Luis Cliiesa

The family Caecidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda)

in Argentine waters


Thomas A. Neubauer

Oleg Mandic

Mathias Harzhauser

A new melanopsid species (Gastropoda) from the middle Miocene

Kiipres Basin (Bosnia and Herzegovina)


M.G. Harasewych

Atienuiconus nuirileeae, a new species of cone (Gastropoda: Conidae: Puncticulinae) from Curasao


Jochen Gerber

First American record of the exotic slug Tandonia kusceri (Gastropoda: Milacidae)




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THE NAUTILUS 128(2):31-39, 2014

Page 31

New Scutellastra (Gastropoda: Patellidae) species from the lower Miocene Navidad Formation of central Chile and the lower-middle Miocene Cantaure Formation of Venezuela

Sven N. Nielsen

Uiiiversidad Austral de Chile

Institiito de Ciencias Ainbieiitales y Evolutivas

Casilla 567, ValdiUa, Chile

Bernard Landau Naturalis Biodiversity Center Leiden, The Netherlands and

Centro de Geologia da Universidade de Lisboa

Lisboa, Portugal


International Health Centres Av. Infante de Henrique 7 Areias Sao Joao, P-8200-261 Albufeira, Portugal l)


New species of the patellid gastropod genus Saitellastra are described from the lower Miocene Navidad Formation of cen- tral Chile and the lower-middle Miocene Cantaure Formation of Venezuela. Saitellastra arayae new species is the first fossil record of a patellid from Chile and S. venezuelana new species is the first from tropical America. This genus is today restricted to soutliem Africa and the western Pacific, with the exception of S. mexicana from Central America. Together with contempora- neous fossil occurrences in New Zealand, these new records show that Saitellastra had a much wider distribution when water temperatures were higher during tlie mid-Cenozoic.

Additional Keywords: Paleontology, marine, Patellogastropoda


The systematic position of the genus Scutellastra H. and A. Adams, 1854 was considered problematic in the Southern Synthesis (Lindberg, 1998), whereas it is clearly included in Patellidae in the phylogenetic analysis of Ridgway et al. (1998). Further investigations by Koufopanou et al. (1999), Lindberg (2007), and Nakano and Ozawa (2007) suggested that the genus Scutellastra may be polyphyletic with respect to the genera Helcion Montfort, 1810 and Cijmhiila H. and A. Adams, 1854. Lindberg (2007) also mentioned a “scutellastrid clade” being the “sister taxon of [. . .] the Patellidae” but did not formally name it. It would contain the genera Scutellastra, Helcion, and Cijmbula. We here follow the traditional view that recognizes tire sole family Patellidae within Patelloidea (Bouchet and Rocroi, 2005).

Extant species of Scutellastra are present almost exclusively in the Atlantic, in southern Africa, and in the Indian Ocean, in southern Australia (Ridgway et al., 1998), with few species extending throughout the west- ern Pacific, and only S. mexicana (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) is present in the eastern Pacific, in the Americas, ranging from western Mexico to Peru. Species of Saitellastra are usually intertidal, but some live just subtidally (Lindberg, 1998). They are generally found in tropical to subtropical regions, with the species of south- ern Australia being the temperate end-members. The fossil record of Scutellastra goes back to the upper Cretaceous of Japan (Kase and Shigeta, 1996).

Patellogastropod limpets are a dominant group today in intertidal environments of Pacific southern South America, represented by the nacellid genus Nacella (Valdovinos and Riith, 2005; Gonzalez-Wevar et al., 2011) and the lottiid genus Scurria (Espoz et al., 2004). The Chilean fossil record of limpets in beds older than Pleistwene is scarce. Only a single specimen of Nacella {Patinigera) intifo'nna DeVries, 2008 from the Huenteguapi Sandstone (Le Roux et al, 2008) on Arauco Peninsula and the liolotype of Nacella (Patinigera) nielseni DeVries, 2008 from Cliiloe Island (Watters and Fleming, 1972) are known from the Neogene of Chile. The only other large patellogastropod limpet is the smooth-shelled nacellid Cellana fiienzalidai (Hemi, 1969) from the Pliocene of northern Chile (Herm, 1969; Lindberg and Hickjiian, 1986). All these belong in the family Nacellidae.

The tropical American Neogene patellogastropod lim- pet record is even poorer, with no fossil species at al! described from any of the ricli Caribbean or Panamic Pacific assemblages, except for the shell illustrated by Lindberg (2007, text-figure 8B) as Scutellastra sp. from

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THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 128, No. 2

the Pliocene of Venezuela. Lindberg (2007) did not provide the localih' for thi.s specimen, but, according to its localit)' record, it was collected at approximately 300 m soutli of Casa Cantanre (D.R. Lindberg personal communication), which is the only place where we have found representa- tives of Saiiellmtra in Venezuela. It is undoul)tedly con- specific witli the new Venezuelan species described herein and dates therefore from the Miocene, not Pliocene.


Chile: The Chilean Scufella.stra comes from reddish sandstones of the Navidad Formation (Encinas et ah, 2006) at Punta Perro, central Chile (Figure 1). These deposits were dated as upper Miocene by Finger et al. (2007, locality PPN) l)ased on misidentified foraminifera (Finger, 2013). The mollusk assemblage was interpreted as being reworked from lower Miocene betls based c)n comparison with southern Peni (DeVries and Frassinetti, 2003; Finger et ah, 2(M)7), an inteqiretation confirmed with strontium isotope dating by Nhelsen and Glodny (2009). Recently revised identification of stratigraphic index foraminifera (Finger, 2013), however, now agrees with a lower Miocene age for the Navidad Formation

and also explains earlier assignments to younger ages (e.g., Ibaraki, 1992). These new data provide a consensus for the lower Miocene age of the Navidad Formation. The displacement scenario of Finger et al. (2007) is still valid, although it has now been demonstrated that con- temporaneous shallow-water deposits were transported into bathyal depths, as indicated by the strontium isotope data of Nielsen and Glodnv (2009). Many shallow-water taxa occur in sediments intercalated with deep-water deposits containing a completely different fauna (see Finger et ah, 2007).

The assemblage from the same concretionaiy block that contained the Saitellastra specimen includes Pinna semicostata, Ghjcijineris sp., Astele chilemis, Echimyphoria monilifer, Distorsio ringens, Glossaulax pachystomi, Magnatica suhsohda, Sinnm mbglohosiim, Lampnxkmiina (Hinidkifa, Testallium cepa, Austrotxmm echimdata. Inquis- itor lingidacaninns, Dentalinm sp. and represents the ty{3- ical shallow-water Navidad assemblage (see Finger et al., 2007; Griffin and Nielsen, 2008; Kiel and Nielsen, 2010).

Venezuela: The Venezuelan Saitellastra material lierein described and discussed comes from the San Jose de Cocodite region in the Paraguana Peninsula of north- ern Venezuela (Falcon State). The collection site where

S.N. Nielsen and B. Lanciau, 2014

Page 33

it originates from is located in the Caiitaure area, 3.4 km West of the cliurch of tlie village of San Jose de Cocodite (as tile crow flies), at an altitude of approximately 140 m al)()ve sea-level on a acacia and cactus covered area approximately 400 m south of Casa Cantaure with tlie approximate geographic coordinates: 11°56'24.]" N, 70° 01' 04.5" W (Figure 2; location of Casa Cantaure after Griffiths et al., 2013: 11°56'35.9" N, 70°01'10.8" W).

The specimens were collected from a thick, friable, yellow, fine sandstone !)ed containing an abundant and diversified molluscan assemblage (mostly gastropods and bi\-alves with rare iiautiloid cephalopods), as well as other elements such as barnacles and corals. This bed is part of the Cantaure Formation (Jung, 1965; Hunter and Bartok, 1974), which, as a whole, according to Diaz de Gcunero (1974), is correlated with the planktonic forami- niferaJ biozones Glohigerinatella insueta and Praeorbulina glomerosa of Bolli (1966), biozones N7 and N8 of Blow (1969), which in turn, according to tlie latest geologic time scale of Gradstein et al. (2012), correspond to the Lower to Middle Miocene transition, upper Burdigalian to lower Langhian. Key (1996) corroborates this biostratigraphic correlation stating that the Cantaure calcareous nanno- fossil assemblage contains the Helicosphaera amj)lmpert.a and Sphenolithus heteromorj)hus markers corresponding

to the biozones NN4 and NN5 of Martini (1971), which broadly correlate with the above inentioiied foraminif-

eral zones.

In several recent papers, however, tli(> (iantaure For- mation continues to be assigned to the Lower Miocene, Burdigalian, after the traditional correlation of Diaz de Gamero (1974) and Key (1996). Aguilera and Rodrigues de Aguilera (1999), !)ased on planktonic foraminifera data from a personal communication by Collins, place the Cantaure Formation in the Lower Miocene, Burdigalian. Griffiths et al. (2013), based on ^'Sr/^^^Sr isotope data obtained from corals, assign an age of between 16.3 and 16.6 Ma to the fossils of Cantaure, placing them in the Burdigalian. Tliese antliors further comment that the isotopic results obtained are in good agreement with the traditional biostratigraphic age esti- mates for the Cantaure Formation based on the identifi- cation of the N7-N8 planktonic foraminiferal zones by Diaz de Gamero (1974) and the nannofossil biozones NN4-NN5 by Rey (1996). Anderson and Roopnarine (2005), on the other hand, in their Table 2, place tlie Cantaure Formation in the Burdigalian-Langhian, strad- dling tlie Lower-Middle Miocene boundary.

The Cantaure Formation consists of a sedimentary sequence approximately 75 in thickness and mainly

Figure 2. Geographic location of the study site in tlie Cantaure region, Paragiiana Peninsula, in Venezuela.

ir 56’ 24.1

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THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 128, No. 2

composed of fossiliferous silts, siltv sandstones, and fine to medium sandstones interbedded with thin algal lime- stones (Hunter and Bartok 1974; Lexico Estratigrilfico de Venezuela, 1997; Aguilera et ah, 2013). A diverse fossil assemblage, particiilarlv rich in mollusks, !)ut also featur- ing corals, decapods and cirripedian cnistaceans, and fish renuiins, has been identified in the sediments of the Cantaure section, especiiilly in its lower part (e.g. Jung 1965; Nolf and Aguilera 1998; Aguilera and Rodrigues de Aguilera, 1999; Griffiths et al., 2013). Locally, decimetric boulders of limestone with in .sifn -attached valves of the shallow marine bivalve Spomhjhis sp. may be observed within the friable fine sandstone beds. This fossil assem- blage is indicative of a shallow to coasted tropical marine environment, with clear water and marine eiihaline salin- ity (Jung, 1965; Di'az de Gamero, 1974; Nolf and Aguilera, 1998; Aguilera et al., 2013; Griffiths et ah, 2013).


The Cliilean mateiicil described herein comes from the CovaceUcli and Fnissinetti collection, housed in the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile. The Venezuelan material described liere is from the Gibson- Smith collection, housed in the Natiirhistorisches Museum Basel (NMB), Switzerhuid, and the Bernard Landau collection, lioused in the Natiirhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria.

In the .systematic descriptions of the new species, we have followed the moqihometric model suggested by Jerardino and Navarro (2008) and MacClintock (1967) (Figures 3-6). Following the convention established by MacClintock (1967), the layers are numbered by refer- ence to tlie myostracurn (m); starting at the outside of the .shell, they are designated m+3, m+2, m+1, m and



Figures 3-6. Mor|ihoinetric nieasuremeiits of patellogastropod limpet; Scutellastra veneztielana new species. Figures 3-5 adapted from Jerardino and Navarro (2008, p. 1025, fig. 1 ) TL = Total length; AL = anterior length; PL = posterior length; TW = total width; LAV = lateral width; AIL = anterior inner length; IL = inner length; PIL = posterior inner length; IW = inner width; LIAV = lateral inner width. Figure 6 adapted from MacClintock (1967) in = myostracurn.








S.N. Nielseii and B. Landau, 2014

Page 35

m - 1. Although MacClintock (1967) distingiiislied ni+2 and iri+3 layers in the shells of patellids, Ridgeway et al. (1998) found that these were not clearly separable. In both new species the width of the in+1 layer is greater than half of the width of the combined outer (m + 1, m+2, in+3) layers (see Figures 3, 5, 7, 10, 12). Tliis character is seen in tlie genera Scutellastra, Lottia, and Acmaea (Ridgeway et al, 1998). The relatively large and solid shells with strong radial dorsal sculpture suggest placement in the genus Scufellastra.

Abbreviations: SCO. PL, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile; NHMW, Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Austria; NMB, Natiirhistori.sches Museum Basel, Switzerland.


Superfamily Patelloidea Rafinesque, 1815 Family Patellidae Rafinesque, 1815

Genus Scutellastra H. and A. Adams, 1854

Type Species: Patella plicata Born, 1778 (= P. harhara Linnaeus, 1758) by subsequent designation of Wenz (1938, see Ridgway et al., 1998); Recent, South Africa.

Scutellastra arayae new species (Figures 7-9)

Description: Shell large, tliick, oval, lieaGly ornamented with very coarse irregular radiiil ribs projecting notalrly at margin. Seven primary ribs, one secondary rib in each interspace, one tertiary rib between primaries and secondaries, additional lesser ribs in all interspaces and on major ribs. Apex situated anteriorly. Muscle scar horseshoe-shaped, open anteriorly. Venter with deep, U- shaped myostracum (m); m-1 about 1/3 totiil width of shell at level of opening of myostracum; m+1 wide, widtii about 4/5 in of m-1, in+2 and 3 narrow (numbering following MacClintock, 1967).

Type Material: Holotype SCO. PI. 6650 from Punta Perro, height 55 mm, diameter 93 mm (incomplete) x 92.6 mm, Covacevich and Frassinetti locality 241080.1. Concretionary block with small Pinna seniicostata.

Type Locality: Punta Perro, lower Miocene Navidad Formation, central Chile.

Other Material Exannined: Known only from holotype.

Distribution: Only known from the type locality.

Etymology: Named after Ivette Araya, paleontology collections manager at Museo Nacional de Historia Nat- ural, Santiago.

Measurements: Measurements follow Jerardino and Navarro (2008). Total length (TL) > 93 mm; anterior length (AL) ~ 51.3 mm; posterior length (PL) unknown;

total width (TW) 92.6 miii; lateral width (L\\') 50 mm; anterior inner length (AIL) 19 mm; inner l('ngtli (IL) 60 mm; posterior inner length (PIL) unknown; inner width (IW) 36.2 inm; lateral inner widtli (LIW') > 26.2 inm.

Discussion: Scutellasfra arayae new- species lias few coarse projecting ribs and can be easily distingiiislied from species with a smooth or crenulate margin, includ- ing S, mexicana. The apex of S. arayae lies anteriorly while that of S. flexuosa (Quoy and Gaimard, 1834) from Australia is nearly central. Smtellasira cliaj)inaiii (Tenison- Woods, 1876) from Australia and S. longicosia (Lamarck, 1819) from South Africa have better defined and more projecting ribs. Scutellastra harhara (Linnaeus, 1758) and S. exusta (Reeve, 1854), botli from South Africa liave more and finer ribs.

According to Beu and Miixwell (1990) two fossil species of Sadelkistra are knowm from New Zealand, tlie upper Oligocene-early Miocene S. aurorae Fleming, 1973 and the early Miocene S. coojjeri (Powell, 1938), wliich would both be roughly contemporaneous vrith the Chilean spe- cies. judging from the original figures, S. aurorae has a rather smooth margin and more and weaker ribs while S. coirperi has stronger projecting ribs than S. arayae.

Several species of Scutellastra are known to be gar- deners. Some species garden coralline algal substrate in their periphery, feeding either on those coralline algae or on other red algae growing on this substrate while other species maintain patches of algae on which they graze (Lindberg, 2007). Patch and periphery gardeners can be recognized moiphologically since peripheiy gardeners exliibit an anteriorly extended shell while the shells of patch gardeners have a rounded anterior end. Both forms can thus be recognized in the fossil record and their ecology may be inferred as was done by Lindi^erg (2007) who figured the tyjiically extended shell form ol a fossil specimen from Venezuela that was reported as of Pliocene age but, as mentioned earlier, is the Miocene species described below. Scutellastra arayae does not show an anteriorly extended shell and is therefore con- sidered to belong to the patch-gardening group.

Scutellastra venezuelana new species (Figures 10-14)

Scutellastra sp. Lindberg, 2007, p. 230, fig. SB.

Description: Shell moderately large, up to 90 mm in length, solid, depressed, pear-shaped, witli anterior end produced, but not constricted at neck. Sculpture of coarse radial ribs on dorsum, most of which of primary strength and deeply corrugate the margin. Venter with deep, U-shaped myostracum (m); m-1 about total wndtli of shell at level of opening of myostracum; m+1 wide, about equal in wddth to in-1, in+2 and 3 narrow' (num- bering following MacClintock, 1967).

Type Material: Holotvpe NHMW 2013/0566/0002, height 9.7 mm, diameter 34.0 mm x 22.5 mm; paratvpe 1, NHMW 2013/0566/0001, height 16.9 mm, diameter

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THE NAUTILUS, Vol. 128, No. 2

Figures 7-14. Saitellastra specie.s. 7-9. Scutellastra araijae new species. Holotvpe SGO.PI.665{), height 55 mm, diameter >93 x 92.6 mm. Punta Perro, lower Miocene NaMdad Forination, central Chile. 10-14. Scutellastra venezuelana new species. From 1 km southwest of Casa Cantaure, about 10 km west of Pueblo Nuevo, Falcon, Venezuela, Cantaure Formation, upper Biirdigalian-lower Langhian, lower-middle Miocene boundary'. 10-11. Holoty|re NHMW 2013/0566/0002, height 9.7 mm, diameter 34.0 mm x 22.5 mm. 12-14. Paratvpe 1 NHMW 2013/0566/0001. Height 16.9 mm, diameter 60.5 mm x 43.0 mm.

S.N. Nielsen and B. Landan, 2014 l^ige 37

60.5 nnn x 43.0 mni; paratvpe 2, NHMW 201 3/0566/ 0003, height 10.6 nnn, diameter 38.5 mm x 27.8 mm; parahpe 3, KIIMW 2013/0566/0004, lieight 10.5 mm, diameter 40.3 mm x 27.6 mm; paratvpe 4, NMB 1120223, height 15.9 nnn, diameter 62.0 inm x 42.2 mm, NMB locality 17516; paratvpe 5, NMB II20224, height

14.7 mm, diameter 59.0 mm x 43.2 mm, NMB local- ity 17516.

Type Locality': 1 km southwest of Casa Cantaure, about 10 km west of Pueblo Nuevo, Falcon, X'eneznela, Cantanre Formation, upper Bnrdigalian-lower Langhian, lower-middle Miocene !)oundarv.

Other Material Examined: Miiximurn dimensions: diameter 89.1 mm x 58.7 mm. NHMW 2013/0566/0005 (8); NMB locality 17516 NMB (31 unnumbered speci- mens), same locality as type material.

Di.strib«tion: Only known from the type locality.

Ety'mology: Named after the country of origin, \'enezuela. The gender of Scutellastra is feminine.

Measurements: Measurements follow Jerardino and Navarro (2008) of paratvpe 1. Total length (TL) 60.5 mm; anterior length (AL) 36.5 mm; posterior length (PL) 29.3 mm; total width (TW) 43.0 mm; later;il vvadth (LW) 26.9 mm; anterior inner length (AIL) 20.3 mni; inner length (IL) 29.2 mm; posterior inner length (PIL)

12.7 mm; inner w'idth (IW) 16.1 mm; lateral inner width (liW) 16.8 mm.

Discussion: The rostration developed in Scutellastra venezuelana new species makes it superficially similar to the extant Scutellastra cochlear (Born, 1778) from the coasts of South Africa, but this species differs in having an even more pronounced rostration, which is somewhat pinched at tfie neck. Although this tendency to rostration is most strongly developed in S. cochlear tuid S. venezuelana, this character is probably convergent as it is developed to some degree in several other Scutellastra species; i.e. the eastern Pacific species S. mexicana (Broderip and Sowerby, 1829) and the Indo-Pacific species S. (rfjtima (Pilsbry, 1927). More importantly, S. venezuelana differs from both S. cochlear and S. mexicana in having coarser dorsal ribs, almost all of which are of primary strength, whereas both S. cochlear and S. mexicana have finer ribbing, with sev- eral orders of major and minor ribs.

Despite the superficial similaritv’ between the shells of S. cochlear and S. venezuelana, there are no common factors between the Venezuelan and South African mol- luscan faunas, and tlie new Venezuelan species is much more likely to be related to the eastern pacific S. mexicana. The similarity between these species is likely to be due to common ecological factors. According to Lindberg (2007), the tendency to rostration and an angular rather than rounded profile when viewed from the dorsal aspect are associated with gardening limpets that maintain the gar- den around the periphery of the shell. Lindberg (2007) suggested that the rostration might allow these limpets to

graze their gardens without leaving the vicinity of their home depressions.

Scutellastra venezuelana lu'w spt'cies is (jiiite unlike the Chilean S', arai/ae new species, which is less flat- tened, the primarv ribs are much broader and th(‘ shell does not develop the pronounced rostration so typical of S. venezuelana, S. cochlear and S. mexicana.


In the Recent American shallow marine faunas, Scutellastra is known only from the extant sp(‘ci('s S. mexicana occurring from \\'est Mexico to Pern. This paper introduces two new species from the American fossil record. Scutellastra araijae new species is the oldest and the southernmost record from the Americas. It is also the first patellid recognized from Cenozoic deposits of Chile. Scutellastra venezuelana new specie's is only slightly younger, straddling the earlv-middle Mio- cene boundary', it is the first record for the genus in the tropical American Neogene and the Caribbean/western Atlantic indentified to species-level. This new re'cord adds the genus Scutellastra to the list of Paciphile gen- era, i.e., genera which, follow'ing the closure of the Cen- tral American Seaway, disappeared from the Caribbean and became restricted to the Pacific side of their original wider distribution. For full list of Paciphile genera see Landau et al. (2009).

The biogeographic pattern of dispersal of patellid gas- tropods has been fairly controversial. This is not helped by the very poor fossil record for the group. “Patella” sotjaensis Kase and Shigeta, 1996 from the upper Creta- ceous of northern Japan, assigned to Scutellastra bv Ridgway et al. (1998) is the oldest record for the genus, altliough the generic placement was (piestioned by Koufopanou et al. (1999). Together vCth the records from New Zealand, these new lower and lower-middle Miocene American records are among the oldest undis- puted records for the genus. Koufopanou et al. (1999) suggested that S. mexicana was a relict from a formerly widespread Tethyan distribution of early Scutellastra species (Powell, 1973; Ridgway et al, 1998). They pre- dicted that further Scutellastra should be discovered in the Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These findings support their hypothesis.

Through comparison vUth the current biogeographic distribution of Scmtellastra spp., as far as tbe Chilean record is concerned, it becomes evident that this fossil species is yet anotlier piece of evidence that ( 1 ) shallow- water or, as in this case, even intertidal tiixa were displaced into bathyal depth of the Na\idad Formation (see Finger, 2013), (2) sea surface temperatures along the Chilean coast were significantly higher during the early M iocene than they are today (Nielsen and Glodny, 2009), and (3) discovery of this new species confirms the results of Kiel and Nielsen (2010) tliat, although the Navidad assemblage is relatively well described, there remain many more species to be discovered. The \enezuelan

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record ( I ) illiistrate.s again tlie iinportanee of the Cantaure as.seinl)lage, as one of the vei-v few tropical Neogene assenililages representing rocky hottoin liabitats (Yenneij, 2001; Landau et ah, 2009; Landau and \'enneij, 2010), and (2) adds to the nuniher of species knowii to have been distril)uted throughout the Neogene Gatunian province, hut today restricted to tlie Pananiie Pacific.


Ivette Arava and tlie late Daniel Erassinetti (Museo Naeional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile) are thanked for access to the collections under their care. Thanks to Carlos Marcpies da SiKa of the Universih’ of Lisfxni, Portugal, and Toinovuki Nakano of Nagova University’, Japan for their help and advice in preparing this paper.


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THE NAUTILUS 128(2):40-50, 2014

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The family Caecidae (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda) in Argentine waters

Guido Pastorino Ignacio Luis Chiesa

Museo Argentiiio de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivada\ia”

A\'. Ange! Gallardo 470

C14()5DJR Cindad Autdnoina de Buenos Aires, ARGENTINA


This is the first formal report of ineinhers of the family Caecidae in Argentine waters. Caecum striattim de Folin, 1868, C. strij^osuiii de F'olin, 1868, and C. achiroua (tie Folin, 1867) are re-described from shallow waters off Piedras Coloradas (~40°53.()81' S, 65°07.592' W), Rio Negro Proxince, Argentina. 'Phis is the farthest south record of these species wliich were previously recorded from USA, Bahamas, Panama, Brazil, and Uruguay. The authors also make obsenations about the different ontogenetic stages of the studietl species. Scan- ning electron microscope illustrations of radula and operculum are provitled for the first time.

Additional Kf’i/word.s: Argentina, Caecuim Patagonia, taxonomy


The family Caecidae comprises marine caenogastropods with simple cylindrical (Caecinae) or almost planispiral (Ctiloceratinae) very small shells, usually around 2-3 mm whicli in rare cases are larger than 5 mm. The Caecinae inhabit tropical and temperate environments, mostly in shallow waters. The early works of Carpenter (1858) and de Folin (1877) established that at least three different growth stages are present in representatives of the group. However, Bandel (1996) reported more complicated arrangements, which may be imi(|ue for each species.

Probably because of small size, particular ontogeny, and somewhat conservative shell mor]ihology’, the taxonomy of this interesting group is far from complete. In addition, most of the species have been described based solely on shell characters. However, some earlier workers (e.g., Gotze, 1938; Marcus and Marcus, 1963; Draper, 1979; Bandel, 1984; etc.) described the radiilar moqihology of some species. Marcus and Marcus (1963) presented draw- ings of tlie anatomy, operculum, and radulae of what they identified as C. cometim and C. pulchellum from the littoral of Sao Paulo, Brazil. The actual identities of these species are need of revision.

The first descriptions of species of Caeaim from the southwestern Atlantic are those of de Folin (1868; 1874) as reported by Klappenbach (1964). Inter, Lange de Morretes (1954) de.scrihed a new species from Sao Paulo State, wliich, together with his previous list (1949) increa,sed the number of species of Caecinae knowm from Brazil.

These former workers are pioneers in the study of this complex family; however, only in more recent years the revision of type specimens led to a better understanding of the identities of those nominal species. Absaliio (1994; 1995; 1997), Gomes and Absalao (1996), and Absalao and Gomes (2001) made the first attempts, using modem criteria, to review the family in the southwestern Atlantic.

More recently, Lima et al. (2013) improved on the traditional format of species descriptions with an ontoge- netic approach that we attempted to follow here. Lima et al. (op. cit.) reported more than 30 species living along Brazilian coast.

In the odier countries of southem South America otlier than Bi'cizil, recent species of Caecidae have been described from Cliile (Stiiardo, 1962; 1970; Di Geronimo et al., 1995) and Uruguay (Klappenbach, 1964; Scarabino, 2004). Faiinati (1994) reported the presence of Caecum antillanim Carpenter, 1858 from Holocene deposits from Bahia Blanca, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. In adtli- tion, Penchaszadeh (1973) cited the presence of Caecum sp. as part of the diet of the sea star A.sf rojjecten hrasiliensis collected off Buenos Aires Province. The latter, as far as we know, constitutes the only published report of recent members of the family Caecidae from Argentina.

In this paper we describe, for the first time, three recent representatives of this intriguing family from Argentine waters. The study includes SEM illustrations of the radulae, opercula, and remarks on the ontogeny of some of these species.


The material described herein was collected during a sampling project focused essentially on small peracarid

G. Pastorino and I.L. Chiesa, 2014

Page 41

Table 1. Localitie.s where .speciinen.s of Caecum

! were found. (,s=

starting, and e= ending poi


Station miinlier


Fisliing gear



Depth (111)


Fine .sand

van Veen grai)

40°53.51,5' S