cessions N
















PHILADELPHIA : Published by the Conehologieal Section,





In the present volume the description and illustration of the Helicoid land mollusks will be completed. The first part (Part 29) will continue and complete the account of the genus Cochlostyla. The following part will contain additional species of Helix, being a supplement to volumes III, IV, V, VI and VII. The two parts remaining will contain a guide to the groups of Helices, a resume of the anatomy of the group, and an Index to the species described in volumes II to VIII of the MANUAL.

For the constant sympathy, advice and criticism of correspondents, as well as for valuable information and specimens, the author is deeply grateful. Special thanks are due to Mr. Charles Hedley of Sydney, N. S. W. ; to Mr. John Ponsonby of London, Mr. H. Suter, in New Zealand, Dr. J. C. Cox, Sydney, and to Dr. V. Sterki, New Philadelphia, Ohio.

H.A. P.



Genus COCHLOSTYLA Fer. (Continued.) Section QRTHOSTYLUS Beck.

This section formed the subject of the last pages of the preceding volume of the MANUAL, the larger species having been illustrated and described in that place. The forms to be discussed below lead from the more typical manifestations of Orthostylus toward the section named by v. Martens " Cochlostylse elongate " or Hypselo- styla.

C. NUX Semper. Vol. VII, pi. 36, fig. 34.

Imperforate, elongate-globose, the apex very obtuse ; solid, obliquely distinctly striated and regularly malleated ; unicolored rufous, covered with a brown cuticle. Whorls 5, convex, the last much inflated, as long as the spire. Columella somewhat straight- ened, white, excavated ; aperture somewhat ear-shaped ; peristome narrowly reflexed, pale violet colored within. (SempC)

Alt. 44, diam. 39 ; alt. of aperture 24, width 18 mill.

Mountain district of Northeastern Luzon.

C. (Orthostylus) nux SEMPER, Reis. Archip. Phil., Landmoll. p. 204, t. 10, f. 2.

The exact locality is not known. The species is said by Semper to be quite near to C. jug Ian*, but differs in contour and especially in the malleations upon the last whorl.

Group of C. mus.

Ovate or turbinate, dull colored species, covered with hydroph- anous cuticle, which is nearly uniform or streaked in the direction of growth lines only.



C. MUS Broderip. PL 1, figs. 1, 2.

Imperforate, ovate-conoid, solid. Ground color reddish-brown, becoming light on the spire ; covered with a white or cream-white hydrophanous cuticle which would be uniform except that it is usually much worn into oblique streaks, often having some spirals near the periphery. Aperture as long as the spire.

The spire is bluntly conoidal, apex obtuse; whorls 5J, the last a little descending in front. Aperture quite oblique, white or deli- cate lilac inside ; peristome thick, reflexed, edged with dark brown ; columella wide, white, arcuate above, obliquely truncated below.

Alt. 48, diam. 35 mill. ; oblique alt. of aperture 29 mill.


Bulinus mus BROD. (in sched. Cuming) DELESSERT, Recueil, t. 39, f. 12.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 10.— PFR., Conchy 1. Cab. Bui. t. 52, f. 5, 6; Monogr. ii, p. 17.

It is a much less conoidal, narrower shell than C. ticaonica, wider than C. leucophcea. The oblique altitude of the aperture is about equal to or exceeds the length of the spire, whilst in C. leucophcea the spire is decidedly longer.

C. LEUCOPH.EA Sowerby. PL 1, figs. 7, 8.

Imperforate, ovate-conoidal, solid. Ground color dark brown, becoming yellowish on the spire, then whitish, the apex faint brown ; covered with a white or brownish hydrophanous cuticle which shows a blackish band at the periphery, and usually an irregular series of eroded spots above, somewhat as in C. fenestrata and C. curia.

Spire elevated, obtuse ; whorls 6, the last slightly or not descend" ing in front. Aperture oblique, white inside ; peristome thick, reflexed, brown-edged ; columella wide, white, obliquely truncated below.

Alt. 47, diam. 30 mill. ; oblique alt. of aperture, with peristome 25 mill.

Alt. 44, diam. 28 mill.

S. Nicolas, Nueva Ecija and Candon, Ylocos, Luzon, Philippines.

Helix leucophcea Sow., P. Z. S. 1841, p. 18. DELESSERT, Rec- ueil t. 39, f. 1.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. Bui. t. 10, f. 50.— PFR., Conchyl. Cab. Bui. t. 52, f. 4 ; Monogr. ii, p. 5. Cochlostyla (Ortho- stylus') leucophcea SEMPER, Reis. Landmoll. p. 206, t. 13, f. 5 ; t. 18, f. 20 (anatomy).


This species is allied to C. mus, but differs notably in being narrower, with longer spire and smaller aperture. The style of coloring reminds one of C. fenestrata and C. curia (p. 192 of the preceding volume), and its true systematic position is still an open question with me. See also Semper's remarks upon this species. C. leucophcea differs from all forms of C. metajormis and rustica in the dark-edged lip.

C. GLAUCOPHTHALMA Pfeiffer. PI. 1, fig. 3.

Shell imperforate, ovate-oblong, solid, striatulate; black-chestnut with a streaked brown-ashen hydrophanous cuticle. Spire convex- conoid, the apex dark blue, obtuse ; suture impressed ; whorls 5, a little convex, the last shorter than the spire, obsoletely angulated at the base. Columella somewhat sloping, dilated, flat, white, some- what toothed at the base. Aperture oblique, truncate-oval, livid inside ; peristome simple, very slightly expanded, the right margin bowed. (P/r.)

Alt. 36, diam. 25 mill. ; aperture, alt. 19, width 14.

Philippines (Cuming).

Bulimus glaucophlhalmus PFR., P. Z. S. 1851, p. 255 ; Conchyl. Cab. Bui. p. 89, t. 31, f. 1, 2; Monogr. iii, p. 297.

I have not seen this species. It seems to be allied to C. mus and leucophcea in contour, and to C. satyrus var. cyanocepliala in color pattern.


C. SECKENDORFFIANA Pfeiffer. Vol. VII, pi. 37, fig. 49.

Imperforate, turbinate, solid, somewhat glabrous, shining, chest- nut-tawny. Spire elevated, apex obtuse, blue. Whorls 5, convex, the last ventricose, not descending in front, the base chestnut-black- ish. Columella oblique, wide, white, the base subdentate. Aper- ture rounded-subtetragonal, whitish inside ; peristome subexpanded, brown-edged, the basal margin narrowly reflexed, forming an. angle with the columella. Alt. 32, greater diam. 34, lesser 29 mill.

Philippine Is. ? (Seckendorff coll.)

Helix seckendorffiana PFR., Zeitschr. f. Mai. 1847, p. 12 ; Con- chyl. Cab. p. 308, t. 52, f. 7, 8 ; Monogr. i, p. 220.

This species may belong to the section Calocochlea, in the neigh- borhood of C. dimera, etc. It is known to me by the description and figures only.


C. SOLIDA Pfeiffer. PI. 9, fig. 60.

Imperforate, ovate-oblong, solid, obliquely striated. Deep red- dish, irregularly streaked with brown-white cuticle. Spire conic, pale above ; whorls 7, scarcely convex, the last a little shorter than the spire. Columella straight, subintorted at the base ; aperture ear-shaped, subeffuse laterally, whitish within; peristome rather thick, narrowly expanded, reddish-black inside ; margins joined by a thin, wide callus. (-PjfV1.)

Alt. 84, diam. 40 ; aperture, alt. 41, width 25 mill.

Luzon, Philippines.

Bui solidus PFR., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 152 ; Monogr. ii, p. 28.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 2, f. 9.

There is a Calocochlea of the same name, but later in date ( C. solida Pfr., MANUAL vol. vii, p. 153) ; but it will probably prove to be a mere variety or synonym of C. roissyana.

Group of C. pictor.

Ovate species, generally covered with a creamy hydrophanous cuticle, which is varied by oblique or zigzag stripes.

C. PICTOR Broderip. PI. 4, figs. 38, 39, 40, 41.

Imperforate, oblong-conical, varying from ventricose to elongated ; solid. Ground color chestnut-brown, becoming purple on the earlier whorls, or rarely becoming .paler on the spire. Covered with an opaque white cuticle which is variously marked with irreg- ular stripes of the ground-color, these dark stripes often interrupted and frequently absent on the latter half of the body whorl. The light cuticle is eroded in front of the aperture.

Spire elevated, apex obtuse; whorls 5i, the earlier ones purple (rarely light brown), spirally striated. Aperture purplish inside, oblique; peristome narrowly reflexed, dark purple-brown. Colu- mella vertical, white.

Alt. 46, diam. 28, oblique alt. of aperture 24 mill.

Alt. 37, diam. 26, oblique alt. of aperture 22 mill.

Panay, Philippines.

Bidinus pictor BROD., P. Z. S. 1840, p. 120. Bidimus pictor DELESS., Recueil t. 39, f. 11. PFR., Symbolse ii, p. 39 ; Monogr. ii, p. 31.— DH. in Fer. Hist. t. 154, f. 14-17.— REEVE, Conch. Icon, t. 4, f. 19 ; t. 10, f. 19. Bulimus labropurpureus GRAT., Actes Soc. Linn. Bord. xi, p. 418, t. 4, f. 4.


This species differs from C. ventricosa andfulgetrum in having a dark purple-brown lip, as well as in some peculiarities of color pattern, and in the usually purple apical whorls. I have never seen specimens with dark-banded ground color (save a narrow colu- mellar band), and this will probably prove another distinctive char- acter. The variation in contour, as well as in size is considerable. Fig. 38 is drawn from the most globose specimen before me, fig. 41 from one of the most slender.

C. SOLIVAGA Reeve. PL 3, fig. 30.

Shell somewhat pyramidally ovate, rather thick, slightly ventri- cose, not umbilicated ; whorls 6, smooth ; columella a little thick- ened, arched ; lip reflected. Deep chestnut-purple, covered through- out with a whitish hydrophanous epidermis, (five.)

Philippine Is.

Bulimus solivagus REEVE, Conch. Icon. pi. 74, f. 531, 1849. PFR., Mon. iii, p. 296.

This species is known by the original example only. It is prob- ably allied to C. pictor.

The description of PfeifFer is as follows ; Imperforate, turrited- oblong, solid, black-chestnut, covered with an ashy-white cuticle which is here and there streakedly interrupted. Spire elongate- conic, apex obtuse, chestnut. Whorls 5^, a little convex, the last a little shorter than the spire, obsoletely angled, the base nude. Columella rather straightened, narrow, flat, pale lilac. Aperture oblique, lunate-oval, livid-lilac inside; peristome simple, subex- panded, lilac colored. Alt. 42, diam. 33 ; aperture, alt. 22, width 14 mill. (P/r.)

C. LEOPARDUS Pfeiffer. PI. 1, fig. 9.

Imperforate, ovate, rather solid, longitudinally closely costulate- striate ; tawny, elegantly variegated with spots and stripes of whit- ish hydrophanous cuticle. Spire short, conoid, pellucid above ; whorls 5, convex, rapidly increasing, the last longer than the spire. Columella long. Aperture very large, rounded-oval, white inside ; peristome widely expanded, a little reflexed, edged with chestnut.

Alt. 47, diam. 30; aperture alt. 30, width 22 mill. (P/r.)


B. leopardm PFR., P. Z. S. 1845, p. 67 ; Monogr. ii, p. 26.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 10, f. 51.


Evidently a more ventricose species than C. pidor, ventricosa or fulgetrum.

My valued correspondent John Ponsonby, of London, suggests that C. codonensis Hidalgo, figured on pi. 53, fig. 37 of the preced- ing volume of the MANUAL, is closely allied or possibly identical with this species. Having seen neither, I cannot decide the point.

C. VENTRICOSA Chemnitz. PL 3, figs. 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31.

Imperforate, ventricose, oblong-conoid, solid. Ground color a tawny yellowish-brown, somewhat darker beneath, and frequently having a dark band at periphery, with narrower bands at columella and below the suture. Sometimes having no other pattern, but typically covered with a creamy hydrophanous cuticle which is cut into wide longitudinal bands by narrow, zigzag stripes of the ground color. The dark stripes are usually bordered on one side by opaque creamy stripes of equal width, the hydrophanus cuticle being thinner over the rest of the surface.

Spire elevated, conical, apex rather obtuse. Whorls 61. Aper- ture elliptical, oblique, blue-white inside ; peristome expanded, reflexed, white ; columella vertical, rounded.

Alt. 50, diam. 32 ; aperture, oblique alt. 29 mill.

Alt. 55, diam. 32 ; aperture, oblique alt. 31 mill.

Alt. 58, diam. 30 ; aperture, oblique alt. 29 mill.

Guimaras, Philippines.

Bulla ventricosa CHEMNITZ, Conchyl. Cab. ix, pt. 2, p. 1, t. 117, f. 1007, 1008 ; Das bauchichte Blasenschnecke CHEMN., t. e. p. 16, 1786. Bulimus ventricosus BRUG., Encycl. Meth. i, p. 365. PFR., Symb. iii, p. 88 ; Conchyl. Cab. t, 58, f. 1-4 ; Monogr. ii, p. 30.— PHIL., Abbild. iii, Bui t. 7, figs. 1, 5, 6, $.—Bulfrater FEB., Hist, t. 112, f. 1, 2.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 6, f. 25.— £. nobilis RVE., Conch. Icon. t. 5, f. 20. B. guimarasensis RVE., Conch. Icon. t. 6, f. 24 ; DH. in Fer. Hist, iv, t. 157, f. 9-12.— £. decoratus FER., I. c. t. 112, f. 3, 4.

This is a most variable species, approaching C. fulgetrum in color and form, but distinguished from it by having a darker ground color and in having the hydrophanous stripes much wider, when pres- ent. It differs from C.pietor in having the lip invariably white ; from all forms of C. satyrus in being more ventricose and in lacking a subsutural border.

The color varieties may be classified as follows :


1. Typical ventricosa (pi. 3, figs. 25, 28). Ground color olive- brown or tawny-yellowish, having dark bands at periphery, above and below the suture, and usually around the columella. Hydroph- anous creamy cuticle generally well developed. The following fig- ures represent this variety : Chemnitz, pi. 117, f. 1007, 1008 (the hydrophanous coat had been worn from the specimen figured) ; Conchyl. Cab. pi. 58, f. 1, 2 ; Conch. Icon. pi. 5, fig. 206 ; Abbild. u. Beschreib. iii, Bui. pi. 7, fig. 9. Other forms of the typical var- iety have the dark bands very faint or lacking (pi. 3, figs. 24, 26), and the hydrophanous cuticle prominently developed. In a few specimens before me the characteristic zigzag dark stripes are absent (fig. 24).

2. Scarcely separable from this is the form called GUIMARASEN- srs Keeve (pi. 3, fig. 31), which has the same ground color, but lacks hydrophanous creamy markings. The bands are usually narrower than in fig. 31. Besides Reeve's figures, the following illustrations represent this variety : Fer. Histoire, iv, pi. 157, figs. 9-12; Con- chyl. Cab. pi. 58, fig. 4.

3. The var. DECORATA Fer. (pi. 3, figs. 27 and 29) is light colored and shows a band at periphery, usually continuing up the spire above the suture, and often a second faint band below the suture. Figs. 3, 4 of pi. 112, Fer. Hist. ; figs. 5, 6, pi. vii of Phil., Abbild. ; and figs. 20a, 25 of Couch. Icon, represent this form.

A form also occurs without the peripheral girdle (pi. 3, fig. 23). This has received the name of frater Fer. See Fer. Hist. pi. 112, figs. 1, 2, and Phil. Abbild. iii, pi. 7, fig. 1.

Compare also, on all these forms, Hidalgo, Journ. de Conchylio- logie 1887, p. 184, 185.

C. APLOMORPHA Jonas. PI. 12, fig. 11.

Imperforate, oblong-conic, elongated, solid ; lower two whorls tawny-brown, with broad dark brown bands at suture and periph- ery, and covered witli a thin white cuticle worn into streaks; next earlier whorl light brown, the upper whorls white.

The spire is long, conical, apex obtuse, Whorls 6. Aperture decidedly shorter than the spire, white within ; peristome expanded and reflexed, white ; columella gently arcuate, not truncated below, white. Alt. 41, diam. 24 ; oblique alt, of aperture 22 2 mill.



Biilimiis aplomorphus JONAS, P. Z. S. 1842, p. 189. PHILIPPI, Abbild. u. Beschreib. ii, Bid. t. 6, f. 1. ? REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 10, f. 47.

This form differs from C. ventricosa in being smaller, slenderer, with somewhat higher spire. It may, perhaps, prove to be con- nected by intermediate specimens with ventricosa. The single spec- imen before me agrees with Philippi's figures in all respects except that it is frosted over with silvery cuticle.

C. VELATA Broderip. PI. 12, fig. 12.

Imperforate, ovate-oblong, solid ; yellowish, ornamented with two bands and a basal area of chestnut, veiled with a whitish hydrophanous cuticle. Spire conic, apex obtuse. Whorls 6, scarcely convex, the last about equal to three-sevenths the entire length. Columella nearly straight, slightly dilated, rose-white; aperture oval, milk-white within ; peristome somewhat thickened, narrowly reflexed, brown-edged. (Pfr.)

Alt. 44, diam. 21 ; aperture, alt. 21, width 12 mill.

Camotes Is., Philippines.

Bidinus velatus BROD., P. Z. S. 1841, p. 15. Bulimus velatus PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 31. REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 11, f. 57.

Compare C. aplomorpha. C. LIBROSA Pfeiffer. Unfigured.

Imperforate, ovate-oblong, solid, striatulate, covered with a some- what hydrophanous cuticle of a parchment-ashen color, irregularly streaked and at the suture ocellated with brown. Spire a little con- vexly conic, obtuse ; whorls 5i, nearly flat, the last slightly shorter than the spire, shining dark chestnut ; the cuticle deciduous around the pale, compressed, somewhat straightened columella. Aperture oblique, oval-oblong, bluish inside ; peristome chestnut-black, some- what thickened, revolute, the right margin lightly arcuate. (Pfr-)

Alt. 40, diam. 21 ; aperture, alt. 19, width 11 mill.

Palawan, Philippines.

B. librosus PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 388 ; Monogr. iv, p. 375.

Very similar in appearance to C. velata, according to Pfeiffer.

C. FULGETRUM Broderip. PL 4, figs. 32, 33, 34, 35.

Imperforate, oblong-conoid. Ground color light yellow or light brown, paler on the spire, frequently having a dark band at the columella ; hydrophanous cuticle thin and rather deciduous, marked


by rather separated oblique or zigzag cream-white stripes, which are often accompanied by stripes of the ground color.

Spire elevated, conic, apex obtuse ; whorls 6. Aperture elliptical, white or faint lilac inside ; peristome expanded and reflexed, white ; columella vertical.

Alt. 54, diam. 31 ; aperture, oblique alt. 31 mill.

Alt. 59, diam. 34; aperture, oblique alt. 33 mill.

Alt. 45, diam. 29 ; aperture, oblique alt. 28i mill.

Guimaras, Negros and Panay, Philippines.

Bulinus fulgetrum BROD., P. Z. S. 1840, p. 119. Bulimus ful- getrum DELESSERT, Rec. t. 39, f. 7, 8, 9. REEVE, Conch, Syst. ii, t. 172, f. 4; Conch. Icon. t. 5, f. 23.— PER., Monogr. ii, p. 31 ; Con- ch yl. Cab. p. 210, t. 59, f. 4-7. B. ventricosus var. DH. in Fer. Hist. t. 145 A, f. 11, 12. Cochlostyla fulgetrum HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 184.

Typical specimens, when not rubbed, show a thin film of whitish cuticle with occasional narrow, white zigzag or oblique stripes, each bordered behind by a denuded stripe of the same width. These stripes are often very short. Specimens having a dark peripheral band also occur. The color pattern is about all that separates this species from C. ventricosa.

Group of C. satyrus.

Oblong species, usually dark with a brownish or ashen cuticle, streaked in the direction of growth lines.

C. SATYRUS Broderip. PL 2, figs. 13-18 ; pi. 1, figs. 5, 6.

Imperforate, ovate-elongate, solid, smooth. Ground color chest- nut-brown, darker beneath, becoming very pale on the spire, the earlier 3 whorls usually whitish (rarely light orange-brown) ; cov- ered with a hydrophanous whitish, brown-tinted or ashen cuticle, which is more or less streaked obliquely. There is a narrow dark or light margin below the suture, rarely wanting.

The spire is conoidal, longer than the aperture. Apex rather obtuse ; suture but slightly impressed. Whorls 6, the last not descending. Aperture oblique, ovate, bluish-white inside; lip brown-edged ; columella purplish-pink, slightly truncated below.

Alt. 44, diam. 28 mill. ; oblique alt. of aperture 25 mill.

Alt. 54, diam. 28 mill. ; oblique alt. of aperture 29 mill.

Tablas (Cuming) ; Albay and Palawan (Phil. Acad. Coll.); Philippines.


Helix (Cochlostyla) satyrus BROV., P. Z. S. 1840, p. 181.— saiyrus. PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 13. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 29. B. palawanensis PFR., P. Z. S. 1856, p. 388 ; Monogr. iv, p. 372.

This species is less solid than C. leucophcea, and has a more oval and lengthened body whorl. It differs from the preceding forms in lacking oblique or zigzag denuded stripes.

The typical C. satyrus (pi. 2, fig. 13) is rather conoid al, with light colored upper whorls and nearly uniform cuticle. Specimens before me from Albay seem to be typical.

A specimen is shown in fig. 15 which differs in being longer, much streaked with blackish, in lacking the subsutural line, and in hav- ing an orange apex. This may be more nearly related to the C. palawanensis.

A variety which may be called v. minima is shown in figs. 5, 6, of pi. 1. The cuticle is light, uniform where not eroded ; whorls 5 to 5?, the earlier whorls whitish, having a brown band bordering the suture above, and the last li whorls have a narrow brown band below the suture, unfortunately omitted in the figures. Columella pure white. Alt. 34, diam. 23 ; oblique alt. of aperture 20 mill.

Figures 16, 17, 18 of plate 2 represent a form collected upon the Island of Palawan, which I take to be the palawanensis of Pfeiffer. The shells have either a light chestnut (fig. 16) or a black (figs. 17, 18) ground color, becoming, in all cases, very light on the spire, the earlier whorls whitish, showing a faint brown line above the suture. The last three whorls always have a dark line bordering the suture below, and this line has a tendency to emit short flames below (figs. 16, 17), especially upon the spire. The hydrophanous cuticle is persistent, ashy, becoming black on the body whorl in specimens having dark ground color. The lip is black or brown. The colu- mella is rounded, and of a purple color in dark, white in light shells. The spire is wide, apex obtuse, sutures very shallow.

Var. cyanocephala Pils. PL 2, fig. 14.

Ground color dark brown on the last !•} whorls, becoming light yellow on the next earlier, the upper whorls dark blue; hydroph- anous cuticle ashy brown, streaked with black; sutural band indistinct or wanting. Columella pink or white.

Borneo (R. F. Geale) ; Palawan.

C. GRAELLSI Hidalgo. PI. 5, figs. 2, 3.

Imperforate, ovate or oblong, solid, nearly smooth ; chestnut col- ored, covered with a streaked hydrophanous cuticle, the streaks


oblique, close, whitish, more or less tawny. Spire conic, apex obtuse. Whorls 6, slightly convex, the earlier 3 white, ante-penultimate pale tawny, the rest chestnut colored, the last a little shorter than the spire. Columella nearly straight, whitish-fleshy, a little cal- loused. Aperture oval, obliquely subtruncate above, blue- white inside ; peristome somewhat thickened, reflexed, blackish-brown. (Hid.) Alt. 43, diam. 24 ; aperture, alt. 19, width 13 mill.

Entire Island of Balabac, Philippines.

C. graellsi HID., Journ. Conch. 1886, p. 155, t. 8, f. 5.

This species much resembles C. satyrus Brod. and cinerosus Pfr. In satyrus the cuticle is unicolored and darker, in cinerosus the flammules are wider, more spaced, and they terminate a short dis- tance from the suture. In this species there is a dark line below the suture on the last two whorls. (Hid.)

C. CINEROSA PfeifFer. PL 1, fig. 4.

Irnperforate, ovoid, solid, obliquely striatulate; brown, covered with a dark ashen cuticle which is worn off in streaks.

Spire convex-conic, apex obtuse. Whorls 5, moderately convex, the last a little shorter than the spire. Columella subplane, slightly dilated forward, white. Aperture oblique, truncate-oval, whitish inside ; peristome subsimple, narrowly expanded.

Length 36'v, diam. 13 mill. ; length of aperture 20, breadth 14 mill. (Pfr.)

Palawan, Philippines.

Bui cinerosus PFR., P. Z. S., 1855, p. 107, t. 32, f. 5 ; Monogr. iv, p. 375.

The small size, obtuse spire and streaked cuticle are prominent marks of this species, but it may prove to be only a small form of C. satyrus.

C. C^SAR Pfeiffer. PL 5, fig. 1.

Imperforate, globose-conic, thin, nearly smooth, white under a deciduous tawny cuticle; spire conoid, apex obtuse; whorls 5J, moderately convex, the last about equalling the spire. Columella nearly vertical, flat, white, truncate-dentate. Aperture subdiagonal, lunate-rounded, white inside ; peristome white, narrowly expanded, the right margin dilated forward above. (Pfr-)

Alt. 46, diam. 33 ; aperture, alt. 23, width 19 mill.



Buhmus ccesar PFE., P. Z. S., 1854, p. 293 ; Monogr. iv, p. 357. Cochlostyla ccesar, HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch. 1887, p. 168, t. 6, f. 4.

Section XI. HYPSELOSTYLA Martens, 1868.

Cochlostylce elongated MARTENS, Ostas. Zool. Landschn. p. 98, 1867. SEMPER, Reisen Landmoll. p. 208. Hypselostyla MAR- TENS MS., PFR., Monogr. Hel. Viv. vi, p. 7, 15 (for C. nympha and C. dactylus^.—PFR. CLESS., Nomencl. Hel. Viv. p. 207, 1878 (as synonym of Ortho stylus). MLLDFF., Landschn. Cebu p. 243, 1890.

The shell is imperforate, narrow and elongated, usually rather thin and somewhat carinated at the periphery ; peristome more or less expanded but not broad ; no umbilical fissure.

Group of C. cincinna.

Species with light ground color, with or without bands. Hydrophanous cuticle wanting or very inconspicuous.

C. CINCINNA Sowerby. PL 10, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Imperforate, lengthened, pyramidal, solid but not thick ; surface shining, white, pink or pink-brown, with or without a darker colu- mellar patch, and usually having the last whorl irregularly streaked and speckled with brown cuticle.

The spire is long, apex obtuse ; whorls 6?, slightly convex, the last well rounded. Aperture oblique, small ; peristome blunt, very slightly or not expanded ; columella vertical, usually somewhat truncated below.

Alt. 46, diam. 25 ; oblique alt. of aperture 22 mill.

Alt. 40, diam. 25 ; oblique alt. of aperture 20 mill.

Romblon ; Temple and Burias, Philippines.

Helix cincinnus SOWB., P. Z. S., 1840, p. 98. Bui. cincinnus PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 9 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 182, t. 53, f. 10-13.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 7, f. 30. Cochlostyla cincinna SEMPER, Reisen Arch. Phil. Landmoll. p. 211. Bulimus labiozonalis GRAT.. Actes Soc. Linn. Bord. xi, p. 419, t. 4, f. 13. Bid. gracilis LEA, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc. i, p. 173 ; Trans. Am. Philos. Soc. vii, p. 456, f 11, f. 6.— Bui. spretus REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 85, f. 633.— B. virens PFR., P. Z. S., 1842, p. 153 ; Monogr. ii, p. 8.— REEVE, Conch. Icon, t. 7, f. 32.— B. romblonensis PFR., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 152. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 34.— B. pastorella VAL.


The more typical forms have the periphery quite rounded, the lip scarcely expanded, and the apex is never of a different color from the spire.

Typical cincinna (pi. 10, figs. 1, 2) is white, or very pale buff, tini- colored or having the columellar area pink, or the columellar area brown and the lip pink ; dark patches of cuticle may be either present or absent.

Var. gracilis Lea (pi. 10, fig. 5) is a dark variety, but under the name may be included the pink and pink-brown examples (figs. 3,


Var. virens Pfr. (pi. 10, fig. 10) is white, becoming pale green below. It is from the island Burias.

Var. xpretus Reeve (pi. 10, fig. 8) is "pale straw color, chestnut- black around the umbilicus and edge of the aperture, covered toward the base with a thin burnt-brown epidermis. It differs from cincinmts in being of a more truly conical form." Habitat, Romblon.

Var. romblonensis Pfr. (pi. 9, fig. 58 ; pi. 6, fig. 23) has the form of typical cincinna. It is white or pallid buff', with dark bands at suture and periphery and a dark columellar area. Lip colored or not. This form has been united with C. subcarinata, but errone- ously, that species having the lip more expanded than this. Fig. 23 is drawn from a specimen before me.

C. SUCCINCTA Reeve. PI. 10, fig. 14.

Imperforate, ovate-pyramidal ; rather solid, smooth ; white, with one or two chestnut bands and a blackish-chestnut basal area.

Spire elongated, rather obtuse ; whorls 7, slightly convex, the last about two-fifths the entire length, rounded. Columella white, somewhat twisted. Aperture oblique, truncate-oblong ; peristome brown, scarcely thickened, very narrowly reflexed. (Pfr.')

Alt. 62, diam. 28 ; aperture, alt. 26, width 15 mill.


Bui. succinctus REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 74, f. 534 (1849).— PFR., Monogr. iii, p. 310.

I have not seen this form. It may prove to be merely development of the cincinna-romblonensis stock, but it is larger than any cincinna I have seen.




C. CINCINNIFORMIS Sowerby. PI. 6, figs. 21, 22, 24.

Imperforate, ovate-pyramidal, rather thin ; white or very pale buff, having dark brown bands above and below the sutures, at the periphery and around the colurnella ; the subsutural and frequently the peripheral band tessellated with hydrophanous yellow spots.

The spire is elevated, but rather wide. Apex obtuse, purple or white; whorls 5J, slightly convex, the last angulated more or less distinctly at the periphery. Aperture oblique, showing the bands distinctly inside. Peristome thin, distinctly but very narrowly expanded, white, stained with purple at the terminations of the bands. Columella straight above, somewhat truncate below.

Alt. 48, diam. 27 ; aperture, alt. 20 mill, aperture, alt. 18 mill, aperture, alt. 19J mill.

Luban, Philippines.

Helix cincinniformis SOWB., P. Z. S., 1841, p. 17. Bulimus tin. PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 9 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 181, t. 53, f. 6, 7.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 6, f. 28.— DESK, in Fer. Hist. t. 157, f. 3, 4.

This species is closely allied to C. cincinna and C. subcarinata. It differs constantly from the variety romblonensis of the former species in being a less elongated shell, thinner in texture, and with thin, narrowly expanded lip, and in having the upper part of the spire decidedly stouter. Figure 23 of pi. 6 represents a specimen of cincinnus var. romblonensis.

The differences are made clearer in the following comparison :

Alt. 36, diam. 24 Alt. 34, diam. 25

C. cincinna var. romblonensis.

Shell slender, with narrow, straight-sided spire. ^^

Dark bands not spotted.

Shell solid.

Lip dark, obtuse.

Semper has considered this although it is certainly closely specimens before uniting them, flecks upon the bands in fig. 22.

C. cincinniformis.

Shell stouter, the outlines of spire convex above.

Dark bands spotted with light spots.

Shell thin.

Lip white, except at the ter- minations of the bands, thin, narrowly expanded.

species a form of cincinna, but allied I prefer to see intermediate My artist has omitted the light


In one of the specimens before me the space between the periph- eral and basal bands is covered with chestnut colored lineolate cuticle.

C. CARNEOLA Grateloup. PI. 7, fig. 41.

Oblong-conoid, fleshy-white, fragile, pellucid, very shining ; very finely longitudinally striated. Aperture semi-ovate, base rounded ; columella subintorted ; whorls 6, slightly convex. Alt. 35, diam. 25 mill. (Grat.)

Manila (7), Philippines.

Bulimus carneolus GRAT., Actes. Soc. Linn. Bord. xi, p. 417, t. 3, f. 25.

This is a young shell, which Pfeiffer surmises to be a unicolored form of C. cincinniformis. The locality given cannot be correct.

C. SUBCARINATA Pfeiffer. Pi. 9, fig. 59 ; pi. 11, figs. 16, 17, 18.

Imperforate, elongated, the spire conic, elevated. Surface shin- ing, most minutely spirally and obliquely striated, of a delicate green tint fading into white on the spire, having (typically) a golden- brown sutural band flecked with golden-yellow. Body whorl often retaining patches of thin brownish cuticle. Whorls 6, the apex obtuse, earlier two whorls convex, the remainder nearly flat, obtusely angular at the periphery; aperture rhomboidal, oblique, white within; peristome thin, expanded; columella subvert! cal, arcuate.

Alt. 44, diam. 24 ;-. oblique alt. of aperture 22£ mill. Romblon (Cuming) ; Marinduque (Steere Exped. and Hidalgo).

Bulimus subcarinatus PFR., P. Z. S., 1842, p. 153 ; Monogr. ii, p. 8. REEVE, Conch. Icon. f. 35. Cochlostyla eburnea HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch. 1887, p. 186, not of Reeve. Cochlostyla mollen- dorffi HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 187, t. 7, f. 3.

This species differs from C. cincinna and its varieties in being of a less solid texture, in having the lip distinctly expanded, and in being more distinctly subcarinate.

Typically the color is a very delicate green tint, with a golden flecked sutural band, and often some traces of thin brownish cuticle on the body whorl; columella and lip white (pi. 9, fig. 59 ; pi. 11, fig. 16).

This is varied by the darkening of the sutural border, the addi- tion of a circum-columellar black-brown zone, and a dark brown edge to the lip. This is the form which Hidalgo has named C. mol-


lendorffi. It is found associated with typical subcarinata in Marin- duque (pi. 11, figs. 18, 19, 21).

Still another form is shown in fig. 17. It has a black-chestnut band at suture, periphery and columella, but the lip is pure white. This also lives associated with the preceding. It may be distin- guished from the similarly marked C. cincinna var. romblonensis by the thin, expanded lip.

C. EVANESCENS Broderip. PI. 7, fig. 38.

Imperforate, ovate-conic, thin ; whitish, ornamented with a sut- ural line and a basal area of chestnut ; spire conical, rather obtuse ; whorls 6, nearly flat, the last rounded, about equal to three-sevenths the entire length. Columella straight, ashen. Aperture lunate- oval, milk-white inside ; peristome thin, expanded, basal margin forming an angle with the columella. (P/V\)

Alt. 33, diam. 19; aperture, alt. 16, width 11 mill.

Luzon, Philippines.

Bulinus evaneseens BROD., P. Z. S., 1841, p. 15. Bulimus evan- escens ".Pfr.," KEEVE, Conch. Icon. 1. 13, f. 72. B. evaneseens Brod., PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 10.

This seems to be very closely allied to C. subcarinata. I have not seen specimens. Two varieties are recorded : ,3, iiincolored white, and /", pale tawny, with darker band at the suture, basal area and peristome black.

C. EBURNEA Reeve. PL 10, figs. 9, 11.

Imperforate, pyramidal, elongated, pure while or covered with a very thin cuticle of an excessively pale buff tint; polished ; show- ing under a lens, fine growth stria? and spiral incised lines.

Spire high, apex obtuse ; whorls 6, slightly convex, the last slightly descending in front. Aperture oblique, ovate ; peristome thin, expanded ; columella vertical, not arcuate or concave, slightly truncated at the base.

Alt. 39, diam. 22 ; oblique alt. of aperture 20 mill.

Tayabas, Luzon, Philippines.

Bulimus eburneus REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 13, f. 74 (not Cochlo- styla eburnea Hidalgo, J. C. 1887, p. 186. Not Bui eburneus Pfr., a species of Buliminus). B. politics REEVE, in corrigenda to Bui. Conch. Icon. PFR., Monogr. iv, p. 372.

This is a pure white shell having the periphery rounded as in C. cincinna, from which it differs in having the lip decidedly


expanded. In the last character it is like C. subcarinata, but the constant epidermal subsutural band of that species is lacking in eburnea.

Fig. 11 is incorrect in showing the columella arcuate. In the specimen from which that figure was drawn, as well as in all others which I have seen, the columella is straight above, subtruncate


Group of C. carinata.

Species having the ground color either dark or light. Covered with a variously patterned, conspicuous hydrophanous cuticle.

C. NIMBOSA Broderip. PI. 4, figs. 36, 37.

Imperforate, ovate-conic, elongated. Ground color chestnut- brown (or light green), with a dark columellar tract and usually a narrow peripheral band ; irregularly speckled and longitudinally flamed with cream-white or brown hydrophanous cuticle, the flames usually zigzag; apical whorls orange or light brown.

Spire conical, elevated ; whorls 6$. Aperture shorter than the spire, oblique ; peristome expanded, somewhat reflexed, flesh col- ored or brown. Columella vertical.

Alt. 63, diam. 36 ; oblique alt. of aperture 32 mill.

Alt. 62, diam. 34 ; oblique alt. of aperture 30 mill.

Negros and Panay, Philippines.

Bulinus nimbosus BROD., P. Z. S., 1840, p. 121. Bulimus nim- bosus PFR., Monogr. ii, p. 30 ; Conchyl. Cab. p. 209, t. 59, f. 3.— KEEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 4, f. 17. DESH. in Fer. Hist. t. 145 A, f. 18, 19.— B. pfei/erianus REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 4, f. 18.

This species is the largest of the section Hypselostyla. It is closely allied to C. nympha, differing in its larger size and the more expanded and lighter colored lip. Compared with C. ventricosa and fulgetrwn this species is seen to have a more pyramidal, nar- rower spire and the hydrophanous cuticle is more speckled. The figures are drawn from typical specimens in the Philadelphia collection.

The color variety pfeifferiana II ve. (fig. 37) has a light yellowish- green ground color, with the usual dark columellar patch, but with- out a peripheral band.

C. ELEGANS Semper. PI. 13, fig. 55.

Imperforate, ovate-oblong, thin, tawny, with a very elegantly marbled and flamed cuticle of pale brown.


Spire conic, obtuse ; apex nude, rufous ; whorls 6, scarcely con- vex, the last slightly shorter than the spire, subangulated ; colu- mella somewhat twisted, longitudinally biangulate, entering. Aper- ture oblong-subpyriform, whitish within ; peristome thin, narrowly expanded, the right margin dilated above and below, basal margin forming an obsolete angle with the columella. (Pfr.^)

Alt. 52, diam. 25 ; aperture alt. 27, width 15 mill.

Siquijor, Philippines.

Bulimus siquijorensis PFR., P. Z. S., 1845, p. 74; Monogr. ii, p. 12 REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 8, f. 42 (not Carocolla siquijorensis Brod. 1841, also a Cochlostyla). Cochlostyla eleyans SEMPER, Reis. Landmoll. p. 210.

C. CARINATA Lea. PI. 13, figs. 53, 54.

Imperforate, elongated, the spire turrited-conic, the body whorl carinated. Tawny-brown, darker below, fading to a light brown on the spire, the apical whorls a trifle darker; usually in part or almost entirely denuded of the thin creamy-brown hydrophanous cuticle which is disposed in ragged oblique streaks.

Spire long, straight-sided, the earlier two whorls forming a some- what bulbous apex. Whorls 7 to 7-], the first two convex, the rest flat, the last whorl angular at the periphery, somewhat swollen above and frequently subaugular there also. Aperture oblique, broad below, white or livid inside.; peristome dark brown, expanded, receding below ; columella long, white, straight, somewhat receding.

Alt. 64, diam. 29 ; oblique alt. of apert. 31 mill.

Lucban, prov. of Tayabas, Luzon ; Albay ; Catanduanes Is., Philip- pines.

Bulimus carinatus LEA, Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. i, p. 174 (read Feb. 21, 1840 ; Proc. for Jan. and Feb. 1840 distributed March 20, 1840); Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. vii, p. 458, t. 11, f. 7, 1841.— Bulinus dactylus Rnov.,P. Z. S., 1840, p. 158 (read Nov. 24, 1840). —BuUmus dactylus PER., in Conchyl. Cab. p. 209, t. 59, f. 1, 2; Monogr. ii, p. 32.— REEVE, Conch. Icon. t. 8, f. 39. Cochlostyla dactylus Brod., SEMPER, Reis. Landmoll. p. 210. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conchyl. 1887, p. 169.

The priority of Lea's name carinatus over that given by Brod- erip, dactylus, cannot be questioned. I have examined Lea's type, a large and finely developed specimen.


In its typical form, C. carinatus is readily distinguished from C. nympha by its larger size and pronounced keel ; but intermediate specimens are numerous.

As a varietal form the name dactylus may stand for the non-cari- nated, highly variegated examples (fig. 54).

Var. NYMPHA Pfr. PI. 13, figs. 60, 61.

The form is oblong-turrited ; color a varying tint of brown, darker on the base, fading on the spire, the suture generally having a dark border, the columella encircled by an ill-defined dark patch. The hydrophanous cuticle varies from creamy to brown ; it is more or less streaked or torn into shreds lengthwise, and usually there are wide flames springing from the sutures. The spire is flesh-col- ored or purplish above. Whorls 62. Aperture white or flesh- tinted inside; peristome slightly expanded, dark brown ; columella white, vertical.

Alt. 51, diam. 26 ; oblique alt. of aperture 24 mill.

Alt. 47, diam. 24 ; oblique alt. of aperture 22 mill.

San Mateo, prov. Manilla; Tabaco and Daraga, prov. Albay, Luzon; Marinduque, Philippines.

Bulimus nympha PFR., P. Z. S. 1842, p. 89 ; Monogr. ii, p. 13 ; Conchyl. Cab., p. 170, t. 51, f. 3.— REEVE, Conch. Icon., t. 8, f. 41. DESH. in Fer., Hist. t. 145 A, f. 8, 4. Cochlostyla nympha SEMPER, Reisen, Landmoll., p. 209. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch. 1887, p. 170.

Specimens before me recently collected in Marinduque are nearly destitute of hydrophanous cuticle except for a series of golden spots tesselating the dark sutural band. The columella is surrounded by a wide, black-brown, sharply defined band. Periphery angular (fig. 61.)

C. TURRIS Semper. PI. 13, fig. 56.

The young shell is turrited, imperforate, solid, brown, streaked with a hydrophanous whitish-buff* cuticle. Spire much elevated, apex rather acute ; whorls 82, but little convex, the last subangular. Columella vertical, twisted. Aperture semioval ; peristome? (Semper.) Alt. 92, diam. 37 mill.

Near Satpat and Amberbuk, Iraya Mts.

C. turris SEMP., Reis. Landmoll., p. 210, t. 9, f. 3. cf. HIDALGO, Journ. de Conch. 1887, p. 170.


This species evidently stands close to C. dactylus, and it is not impossible that it should be considered a variety of that species ; but the widely separated localities (Albay and the mountain valleys of the eastern Cordillera, opposite Palanan), the greater number of whorls, the much larger size (92 against 73 mill.), seems to me to render it necessary to specifically separate this longest of all Cochlo- stylas, at least temporarily, in spite of the fact that